Common Diseases in Nepal  

Blog   Hamro Doctor  on Wed, Dec 15 2021 03:46 PM 9247 Views 0 Comments 1 persons recommended

Diseases in Nepal are influenced by several factors including the lifestyle, food, environment, economic status of people, healthcare facilities, level of awareness, heredity, social condition, and so on. Over a period of a decade, diseases have been discovered, treated, fought against, and spread across the country. Among them, the most common are Chronic lung diseases.

Top 10 common diseases in Nepal

1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 

COPD is one of the leading causes of death in Nepal. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes chronic lung diseases like emphysema and chronic bronchitis. This disease causes blockage in airflow and difficulty in breathing. Smoking, air pollution, and unhealthy health habits lead to COPD. According to statistics, in 2012, 17,200 people lost their lives in Nepal because of this disease, and between 2005 and 2015, there was an increase in the death rate by 22.5%.    

When an individual suffers from COPD, he/she usually experiences the following symptoms,
a) shortness of breath

b)coughing or wheezing which are frequent

c) difficulty in taking deep breaths

d) excess sputum and so on.

 These symptoms should be watched out and one should immediately consult a doctor in case he/she notices such symptoms

2. Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease that is airborne. Tuberculosis, usually called TB by Nepali people, is one of the major diseases that affect people in the country. The government of Nepal has launched many awareness programs to educate people about communicable diseases. Since the programs started in Nepal, the number of people suffering from the disease has lowered significantly. Most importantly, there has also been a decline in TB-related deaths. 

 a) If the cough lasts for more than three weeks,

 b)one experiences unintentional weight loss,

c)  fever,

d) night sweats,

 The symptoms match with Tuberculosis. In the past, many people lost their lives to the disease but the disease is no more a threat or a deadly one today as the treatment has been proven to be successful.

3. Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemic Heart Disease is also known as coronary artery disease. It took the lives of more than 17,000 people in 2012. Ischemic heart disease is the second leading cause of death in Nepal.

The main factors that promote the prospects of the disease are-

a) high blood pressure

b) smoking

c) diabetes

d)poor diet and so on. 

With the fast-paced lifestyle, Nepalese have seen an increase in hypertension and obesity which are two of the major factors that lead to Coronary artery disease.

The symptoms to be noticed are-

a) weakness

b) pain in arms and shoulders

c) nausea

d) light-headedness

e)cold-sweat, etc.

4. Lower Respiratory Infections

Lower respiratory infections are infections below the voice box or in the lungs. It is one of the major causes of mortality in children and adults not only in Nepal but all over the world. The conditions such as pneumonia, acute or chronic bronchitis, and bronchiolitis. This disease took the lives of more than 13,000 individuals in the last decade and the number is not declining.

 A patient with lower respiratory infections experiences symptoms such as,

a) severe cough

b) difficulty in breathing or rapid breathing

c) chest pain and a feeling of tightness. 

d)The patient also notices a change in the color of skin to blue due to a lack of oxygen in the body. 

This falls under the diseases provoked mostly by the increasing pollution especially in the capital, Kathmandu, Nepal

5. Cerebrovascular Disease 

The cerebrovascular disease killed more than 15,000 people in 2012 and since then the number has not declined. The death rate has increased simultaneously by 25.7% in the country. Cerebrovascular disease leads to cerebrovascular accidents which are known as stroke. 

Risk factors leading to cerebrovascular disease are-

a) smoking

b)alcohol consumption



e) unhealthy lifestyle

6. Common cold

The common cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract. The disease mainly affects the respiratory mucosa of the nose. It also affects the sinuses, larynx, and throat. The symptoms appear a couple of days after exposure to the virus. The common cold is mostly not severe.


The cause of the common cold is known to be a virus called Rhinovirus. But, rhinoviruses are not the only cause of the disease, other viruses may also lead to the common cold.

A patient of common cold experiences symptoms like,

Runny nose
Sore throat
Mild headache
Body ache
In the rural part of Nepal, the most common medicine that might assist in the recovery from the common cold, i.e Paracetamol is not easily accessible. 

7. Scrub Typhus

The bite of infected chiggers spread Scrub Typhus to people. In Nepal, scrub typhus mainly affects people of the Far Western Development Region. 


Scrub Typhus is caused by bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi.

The major symptoms that the people suffering from this disease experience are,

-Fever and headache


Chitwan was the place of a major outbreak in 2016. The government of Nepal should launch awareness programs effectively and should focus on the early detection of such diseases.

8. Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an infection. It inflames alveoli (lungs' air sacs). The alveoli fill up with pus/fluid. Pneumonia infects many people each year in Nepal.

The filling of lung's air sacs with fluid leads to symptoms such as,

-Trouble in breathing




Pneumonia may be serious for people older than 65 years of age. Including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, a variety of organisms cause pneumonia. With the start of November, winter enters Nepal. This month and the following months are the time when a number of people are at risk of this disease.

9. The diarrheal diseases

Diarrheal diseases include typhoid, cholera, rotavirus, etc. If not treated properly, the diarrheal disease can lead to severe dehydration and even death. This disease affects people from all around the world. However, the most vulnerable are children. 


Diarrheal diseases are caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic, organisms mostly spread by feces and contaminated water. 

Certain symptoms that may target diarrheal diseases are,

Abdominal cramp and pain
Blood in stool
Mucus in stool

10. Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids, commonly known as piles in Nepal are the veins swollen in the anus and rectum. The stretched walls of vessels create irritation. Piles have been seen as one of the most commonly occurring problems which affect the quality of life of many Nepali people. 

The cause of piles is,

a) Diarrhea

b) Chronic constipation

c) Heavy lifting

d) Aging

e) Obesity

f) Anal intercourse

People are often confused when it comes to consulting doctors for the treatment of piles. There are both surgical and non-surgical treatments of piles.


What causes most death?

Here, we have shown the death rate index between 2009-2019 of common diseases 



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