Anemia isa condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.
Types of anemia
Sickle cell anemia
Fatigue and loss of energy
Unusually rapid heartbeat, particularly with exercise
Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with exercise
Non specific Symptoms:
Increased heart rate
There is no one specific cause of anemia. Due to the sheer number of anemia types, it can sometimes be difficult to pinpoint the exact cause.
Below, is a general overview of the causes of anemia according to the three main causal groups
Anemia caused by blood loss
Anemia caused by decreased or faulty red blood cells
Anemia caused by the destruction of red blood cells
Anemia of chronic disease
Anemias associated with bone marrow disease
Hematocrit, RBC count
Mean corpuscular volume(MCV), MCHC
Peripheral blood smear
Confirmation of iron deficiency (plasma ferritin, plasma iron, total iron binding capacity)
Serum vitamin B12 and folate level
Choose a vitamin-rich diet
Many types of anemia can't be prevented. However, you can help avoid iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemias by choosing a diet that includes a variety of vitamins and nutrients, including:
Iron Iron-rich foods include beef and other meats, beans, lentils, iron-fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables, and dried fruit.
Folate This nutrient, and its synthetic form folic acid, can be found in citrus fruits and juices, bananas, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fortified breads, cereals and pasta.
Vitamin B-12. This vitamin is found naturally in meat and dairy products. It's also added to some cereals and soy products, such as soy milk.
Vitamin C Foods containing vitamin C — such as citrus fruits, melons and berries — help increase iron absorption.
A diet lacking in certain vitamins
Other factors. A history of certain infections, blood diseases and autoimmune disorders, alcoholism, exposure to toxic chemicals, and the use of some medications can affect red blood cell production and lead to anemia.
Severe fatigue When anemia is severe enough, you may be so tired that you can't complete everyday tasks. You may be too exhausted to work or play.
Heart problems Anemia can lead to a rapid or irregular heartbeat — an arrhythmia. Your heart must pump more blood to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the blood when you're anemic. This can even lead to congestive heart failure.
Supplemental iron for iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin B12 and folate supplementation
Transfusion of blood in severely anemic patient
Splenectomy in autoimmune and genetic destruction of RBCs
Bone marrow transfusion: last resort for sickle cell disease and thalassemia